DESCRIBE Statement

The DESCRIBE statement displays metadata about a table, such as the column names and their data types. In Impala 2.3 and higher, you can specify the name of a complex type column, which takes the form of a dotted path. The path might include multiple components in the case of a nested type definition. In Impala 2.5 and higher, the DESCRIBE DATABASE form can display information about a database.

Syntax:

DESCRIBE [DATABASE] [FORMATTED|EXTENDED] object_name

object_name ::=
    [db_name.]table_name[.complex_col_name ...]
  | db_name

You can use the abbreviation DESC for the DESCRIBE statement.

The DESCRIBE FORMATTED variation displays additional information, in a format familiar to users of Apache Hive. The extra information includes low-level details such as whether the table is internal or external, when it was created, the file format, the location of the data in HDFS, whether the object is a table or a view, and (for views) the text of the query from the view definition.

Note: The Compressed field is not a reliable indicator of whether the table contains compressed data. It typically always shows No, because the compression settings only apply during the session that loads data and are not stored persistently with the table metadata.

Describing databases:

By default, the DESCRIBE output for a database includes the location and the comment, which can be set by the LOCATION and COMMENT clauses on the CREATE DATABASE statement.

The additional information displayed by the FORMATTED or EXTENDED keyword includes the HDFS user ID that is considered the owner of the database, and any optional database properties. The properties could be specified by the WITH DBPROPERTIES clause if the database is created using a Hive CREATE DATABASE statement. Impala currently does not set or do any special processing based on those properties.

The following examples show the variations in syntax and output for describing databases. This feature is available in Impala 2.5 and higher.


describe database default;
+---------+----------------------+-----------------------+
| name    | location             | comment               |
+---------+----------------------+-----------------------+
| default | /user/hive/warehouse | Default Hive database |
+---------+----------------------+-----------------------+

describe database formatted default;
+---------+----------------------+-----------------------+
| name    | location             | comment               |
+---------+----------------------+-----------------------+
| default | /user/hive/warehouse | Default Hive database |
| Owner:  |                      |                       |
|         | public               | ROLE                  |
+---------+----------------------+-----------------------+

describe database extended default;
+---------+----------------------+-----------------------+
| name    | location             | comment               |
+---------+----------------------+-----------------------+
| default | /user/hive/warehouse | Default Hive database |
| Owner:  |                      |                       |
|         | public               | ROLE                  |
+---------+----------------------+-----------------------+

Describing tables:

If the DATABASE keyword is omitted, the default for the DESCRIBE statement is to refer to a table.


-- By default, the table is assumed to be in the current database.
describe my_table;
+------+--------+---------+
| name | type   | comment |
+------+--------+---------+
| x    | int    |         |
| s    | string |         |
+------+--------+---------+

-- Use a fully qualified table name to specify a table in any database.
describe my_database.my_table;
+------+--------+---------+
| name | type   | comment |
+------+--------+---------+
| x    | int    |         |
| s    | string |         |
+------+--------+---------+

-- The formatted or extended output includes additional useful information.
-- The LOCATION field is especially useful to know for DDL statements and HDFS commands
-- during ETL jobs. (The LOCATION includes a full hdfs:// URL, omitted here for readability.)
describe formatted my_table;
+------------------------------+----------------------------------------------+----------------------+
| name                         | type                                         | comment              |
+------------------------------+----------------------------------------------+----------------------+
| # col_name                   | data_type                                    | comment              |
|                              | NULL                                         | NULL                 |
| x                            | int                                          | NULL                 |
| s                            | string                                       | NULL                 |
|                              | NULL                                         | NULL                 |
| # Detailed Table Information | NULL                                         | NULL                 |
| Database:                    | my_database                                  | NULL                 |
| Owner:                       | jrussell                                     | NULL                 |
| CreateTime:                  | Fri Mar 18 15:58:00 PDT 2016                 | NULL                 |
| LastAccessTime:              | UNKNOWN                                      | NULL                 |
| Protect Mode:                | None                                         | NULL                 |
| Retention:                   | 0                                            | NULL                 |
| Location:                    | /user/hive/warehouse/my_database.db/my_table | NULL                 |
| Table Type:                  | MANAGED_TABLE                                | NULL                 |
| Table Parameters:            | NULL                                         | NULL                 |
|                              | transient_lastDdlTime                        | 1458341880           |
|                              | NULL                                         | NULL                 |
| # Storage Information        | NULL                                         | NULL                 |
| SerDe Library:               | org. ... .LazySimpleSerDe                    | NULL                 |
| InputFormat:                 | org.apache.hadoop.mapred.TextInputFormat     | NULL                 |
| OutputFormat:                | org. ... .HiveIgnoreKeyTextOutputFormat      | NULL                 |
| Compressed:                  | No                                           | NULL                 |
| Num Buckets:                 | 0                                            | NULL                 |
| Bucket Columns:              | []                                           | NULL                 |
| Sort Columns:                | []                                           | NULL                 |
+------------------------------+----------------------------------------------+----------------------+

Complex type considerations:

Because the column definitions for complex types can become long, particularly when such types are nested, the DESCRIBE statement uses special formatting for complex type columns to make the output readable.

For the ARRAY, STRUCT, and MAP types available in Impala 2.3 and higher, the DESCRIBE output is formatted to avoid excessively long lines for multiple fields within a STRUCT, or a nested sequence of complex types.

You can pass a multi-part qualified name to DESCRIBE to specify an ARRAY, STRUCT, or MAP column and visualize its structure as if it were a table. For example, if table T1 contains an ARRAY column A1, you could issue the statement DESCRIBE t1.a1. If table T1 contained a STRUCT column S1, and a field F1 within the STRUCT was a MAP, you could issue the statement DESCRIBE t1.s1.f1. An ARRAY is shown as a two-column table, with ITEM and POS columns. A STRUCT is shown as a table with each field representing a column in the table. A MAP is shown as a two-column table, with KEY and VALUE columns.

For example, here is the DESCRIBE output for a table containing a single top-level column of each complex type:

create table t1 (x int, a array<int>, s struct<f1: string, f2: bigint>, m map<string,int>) stored as parquet;

describe t1;
+------+-----------------+---------+
| name | type            | comment |
+------+-----------------+---------+
| x    | int             |         |
| a    | array<int>      |         |
| s    | struct<         |         |
|      |   f1:string,    |         |
|      |   f2:bigint     |         |
|      | >               |         |
| m    | map<string,int> |         |
+------+-----------------+---------+

Here are examples showing how to "drill down" into the layouts of complex types, including using multi-part names to examine the definitions of nested types. The < > delimiters identify the columns with complex types; these are the columns where you can descend another level to see the parts that make up the complex type. This technique helps you to understand the multi-part names you use as table references in queries involving complex types, and the corresponding column names you refer to in the SELECT list. These tables are from the "nested TPC-H" schema, shown in detail in Sample Schema and Data for Experimenting with Impala Complex Types.

The REGION table contains an ARRAY of STRUCT elements:

  • The first DESCRIBE specifies the table name, to display the definition of each top-level column.

  • The second DESCRIBE specifies the name of a complex column, REGION.R_NATIONS, showing that when you include the name of an ARRAY column in a FROM clause, that table reference acts like a two-column table with columns ITEM and POS.

  • The final DESCRIBE specifies the fully qualified name of the ITEM field, to display the layout of its underlying STRUCT type in table format, with the fields mapped to column names.


-- #1: The overall layout of the entire table.
describe region;
+-------------+-------------------------+---------+
| name        | type                    | comment |
+-------------+-------------------------+---------+
| r_regionkey | smallint                |         |
| r_name      | string                  |         |
| r_comment   | string                  |         |
| r_nations   | array<struct<           |         |
|             |   n_nationkey:smallint, |         |
|             |   n_name:string,        |         |
|             |   n_comment:string      |         |
|             | >>                      |         |
+-------------+-------------------------+---------+

-- #2: The ARRAY column within the table.
describe region.r_nations;
+------+-------------------------+---------+
| name | type                    | comment |
+------+-------------------------+---------+
| item | struct<                 |         |
|      |   n_nationkey:smallint, |         |
|      |   n_name:string,        |         |
|      |   n_comment:string      |         |
|      | >                       |         |
| pos  | bigint                  |         |
+------+-------------------------+---------+

-- #3: The STRUCT that makes up each ARRAY element.
--     The fields of the STRUCT act like columns of a table.
describe region.r_nations.item;
+-------------+----------+---------+
| name        | type     | comment |
+-------------+----------+---------+
| n_nationkey | smallint |         |
| n_name      | string   |         |
| n_comment   | string   |         |
+-------------+----------+---------+

The CUSTOMER table contains an ARRAY of STRUCT elements, where one field in the STRUCT is another ARRAY of STRUCT elements:

  • Again, the initial DESCRIBE specifies only the table name.

  • The second DESCRIBE specifies the qualified name of the complex column, CUSTOMER.C_ORDERS, showing how an ARRAY is represented as a two-column table with columns ITEM and POS.

  • The third DESCRIBE specifies the qualified name of the ITEM of the ARRAY column, to see the structure of the nested ARRAY. Again, it has has two parts, ITEM and POS. Because the ARRAY contains a STRUCT, the layout of the STRUCT is shown.

  • The fourth and fifth DESCRIBE statements drill down into a STRUCT field that is itself a complex type, an ARRAY of STRUCT. The ITEM portion of the qualified name is only required when the ARRAY elements are anonymous. The fields of the STRUCT give names to any other complex types nested inside the STRUCT. Therefore, the DESCRIBE parameters CUSTOMER.C_ORDERS.ITEM.O_LINEITEMS and CUSTOMER.C_ORDERS.O_LINEITEMS are equivalent. (For brevity, leave out the ITEM portion of a qualified name when it is not required.)

  • The final DESCRIBE shows the layout of the deeply nested STRUCT type. Because there are no more complex types nested inside this STRUCT, this is as far as you can drill down into the layout for this table.

-- #1: The overall layout of the entire table.
describe customer;
+--------------+------------------------------------+
| name         | type                               |
+--------------+------------------------------------+
| c_custkey    | bigint                             |
... more scalar columns ...
| c_orders     | array<struct<                      |
|              |   o_orderkey:bigint,               |
|              |   o_orderstatus:string,            |
|              |   o_totalprice:decimal(12,2),      |
|              |   o_orderdate:string,              |
|              |   o_orderpriority:string,          |
|              |   o_clerk:string,                  |
|              |   o_shippriority:int,              |
|              |   o_comment:string,                |
|              |   o_lineitems:array<struct<        |
|              |     l_partkey:bigint,              |
|              |     l_suppkey:bigint,              |
|              |     l_linenumber:int,              |
|              |     l_quantity:decimal(12,2),      |
|              |     l_extendedprice:decimal(12,2), |
|              |     l_discount:decimal(12,2),      |
|              |     l_tax:decimal(12,2),           |
|              |     l_returnflag:string,           |
|              |     l_linestatus:string,           |
|              |     l_shipdate:string,             |
|              |     l_commitdate:string,           |
|              |     l_receiptdate:string,          |
|              |     l_shipinstruct:string,         |
|              |     l_shipmode:string,             |
|              |     l_comment:string               |
|              |   >>                               |
|              | >>                                 |
+--------------+------------------------------------+

-- #2: The ARRAY column within the table.
describe customer.c_orders;
+------+------------------------------------+
| name | type                               |
+------+------------------------------------+
| item | struct<                            |
|      |   o_orderkey:bigint,               |
|      |   o_orderstatus:string,            |
... more struct fields ...
|      |   o_lineitems:array<struct<        |
|      |     l_partkey:bigint,              |
|      |     l_suppkey:bigint,              |
... more nested struct fields ...
|      |     l_comment:string               |
|      |   >>                               |
|      | >                                  |
| pos  | bigint                             |
+------+------------------------------------+

-- #3: The STRUCT that makes up each ARRAY element.
--     The fields of the STRUCT act like columns of a table.
describe customer.c_orders.item;
+-----------------+----------------------------------+
| name            | type                             |
+-----------------+----------------------------------+
| o_orderkey      | bigint                           |
| o_orderstatus   | string                           |
| o_totalprice    | decimal(12,2)                    |
| o_orderdate     | string                           |
| o_orderpriority | string                           |
| o_clerk         | string                           |
| o_shippriority  | int                              |
| o_comment       | string                           |
| o_lineitems     | array<struct<                    |
|                 |   l_partkey:bigint,              |
|                 |   l_suppkey:bigint,              |
... more struct fields ...
|                 |   l_comment:string               |
|                 | >>                               |
+-----------------+----------------------------------+

-- #4: The ARRAY nested inside the STRUCT elements of the first ARRAY.
describe customer.c_orders.item.o_lineitems;
+------+----------------------------------+
| name | type                             |
+------+----------------------------------+
| item | struct<                          |
|      |   l_partkey:bigint,              |
|      |   l_suppkey:bigint,              |
... more struct fields ...
|      |   l_comment:string               |
|      | >                                |
| pos  | bigint                           |
+------+----------------------------------+

-- #5: Shorter form of the previous DESCRIBE. Omits the .ITEM portion of the name
--     because O_LINEITEMS and other field names provide a way to refer to things
--     inside the ARRAY element.
describe customer.c_orders.o_lineitems;
+------+----------------------------------+
| name | type                             |
+------+----------------------------------+
| item | struct<                          |
|      |   l_partkey:bigint,              |
|      |   l_suppkey:bigint,              |
... more struct fields ...
|      |   l_comment:string               |
|      | >                                |
| pos  | bigint                           |
+------+----------------------------------+

-- #6: The STRUCT representing ARRAY elements nested inside
--     another ARRAY of STRUCTs. The lack of any complex types
--     in this output means this is as far as DESCRIBE can
--     descend into the table layout.
describe customer.c_orders.o_lineitems.item;
+-----------------+---------------+
| name            | type          |
+-----------------+---------------+
| l_partkey       | bigint        |
| l_suppkey       | bigint        |
... more scalar columns ...
| l_comment       | string        |
+-----------------+---------------+

Usage notes:

After the impalad daemons are restarted, the first query against a table can take longer than subsequent queries, because the metadata for the table is loaded before the query is processed. This one-time delay for each table can cause misleading results in benchmark tests or cause unnecessary concern. To "warm up" the Impala metadata cache, you can issue a DESCRIBE statement in advance for each table you intend to access later.

When you are dealing with data files stored in HDFS, sometimes it is important to know details such as the path of the data files for an Impala table, and the hostname for the namenode. You can get this information from the DESCRIBE FORMATTED output. You specify HDFS URIs or path specifications with statements such as LOAD DATA and the LOCATION clause of CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE. You might also use HDFS URIs or paths with Linux commands such as hadoop and hdfs to copy, rename, and so on, data files in HDFS.

If you connect to different Impala nodes within an impala-shell session for load-balancing purposes, you can enable the SYNC_DDL query option to make each DDL statement wait before returning, until the new or changed metadata has been received by all the Impala nodes. See SYNC_DDL Query Option for details.

Each table can also have associated table statistics and column statistics. To see these categories of information, use the SHOW TABLE STATS table_name and SHOW COLUMN STATS table_name statements. See SHOW Statement for details.

Important: After adding or replacing data in a table used in performance-critical queries, issue a COMPUTE STATS statement to make sure all statistics are up-to-date. Consider updating statistics for a table after any INSERT, LOAD DATA, or CREATE TABLE AS SELECT statement in Impala, or after loading data through Hive and doing a REFRESH table_name in Impala. This technique is especially important for tables that are very large, used in join queries, or both.

Examples:

The following example shows the results of both a standard DESCRIBE and DESCRIBE FORMATTED for different kinds of schema objects:

  • DESCRIBE for a table or a view returns the name, type, and comment for each of the columns. For a view, if the column value is computed by an expression, the column name is automatically generated as _c0, _c1, and so on depending on the ordinal number of the column.
  • A table created with no special format or storage clauses is designated as a MANAGED_TABLE (an "internal table" in Impala terminology). Its data files are stored in an HDFS directory under the default Hive data directory. By default, it uses Text data format.
  • A view is designated as VIRTUAL_VIEW in DESCRIBE FORMATTED output. Some of its properties are NULL or blank because they are inherited from the base table. The text of the query that defines the view is part of the DESCRIBE FORMATTED output.
  • A table with additional clauses in the CREATE TABLE statement has differences in DESCRIBE FORMATTED output. The output for T2 includes the EXTERNAL_TABLE keyword because of the CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE syntax, and different InputFormat and OutputFormat fields to reflect the Parquet file format.
[localhost:21000] > create table t1 (x int, y int, s string);
Query: create table t1 (x int, y int, s string)
[localhost:21000] > describe t1;
Query: describe t1
Query finished, fetching results ...
+------+--------+---------+
| name | type   | comment |
+------+--------+---------+
| x    | int    |         |
| y    | int    |         |
| s    | string |         |
+------+--------+---------+
Returned 3 row(s) in 0.13s
[localhost:21000] > describe formatted t1;
Query: describe formatted t1
Query finished, fetching results ...
+------------------------------+--------------------------------------------+------------+
| name                         | type                                       | comment    |
+------------------------------+--------------------------------------------+------------+
| # col_name                   | data_type                                  | comment    |
|                              | NULL                                       | NULL       |
| x                            | int                                        | None       |
| y                            | int                                        | None       |
| s                            | string                                     | None       |
|                              | NULL                                       | NULL       |
| # Detailed Table Information | NULL                                       | NULL       |
| Database:                    | describe_formatted                         | NULL       |
| Owner:                       | doc_demo                                   | NULL       |
| CreateTime:                  | Mon Jul 22 17:03:16 EDT 2013               | NULL       |
| LastAccessTime:              | UNKNOWN                                    | NULL       |
| Protect Mode:                | None                                       | NULL       |
| Retention:                   | 0                                          | NULL       |
| Location:                    | hdfs://127.0.0.1:8020/user/hive/warehouse/ |            |
|                              |   describe_formatted.db/t1                 | NULL       |
| Table Type:                  | MANAGED_TABLE                              | NULL       |
| Table Parameters:            | NULL                                       | NULL       |
|                              | transient_lastDdlTime                      | 1374526996 |
|                              | NULL                                       | NULL       |
| # Storage Information        | NULL                                       | NULL       |
| SerDe Library:               | org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.lazy.        |            |
|                              |   LazySimpleSerDe                          | NULL       |
| InputFormat:                 | org.apache.hadoop.mapred.TextInputFormat   | NULL       |
| OutputFormat:                | org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.io.              |            |
|                              |   HiveIgnoreKeyTextOutputFormat            | NULL       |
| Compressed:                  | No                                         | NULL       |
| Num Buckets:                 | 0                                          | NULL       |
| Bucket Columns:              | []                                         | NULL       |
| Sort Columns:                | []                                         | NULL       |
+------------------------------+--------------------------------------------+------------+
Returned 26 row(s) in 0.03s
[localhost:21000] > create view v1 as select x, upper(s) from t1;
Query: create view v1 as select x, upper(s) from t1
[localhost:21000] > describe v1;
Query: describe v1
Query finished, fetching results ...
+------+--------+---------+
| name | type   | comment |
+------+--------+---------+
| x    | int    |         |
| _c1  | string |         |
+------+--------+---------+
Returned 2 row(s) in 0.10s
[localhost:21000] > describe formatted v1;
Query: describe formatted v1
Query finished, fetching results ...
+------------------------------+------------------------------+----------------------+
| name                         | type                         | comment              |
+------------------------------+------------------------------+----------------------+
| # col_name                   | data_type                    | comment              |
|                              | NULL                         | NULL                 |
| x                            | int                          | None                 |
| _c1                          | string                       | None                 |
|                              | NULL                         | NULL                 |
| # Detailed Table Information | NULL                         | NULL                 |
| Database:                    | describe_formatted           | NULL                 |
| Owner:                       | doc_demo                     | NULL                 |
| CreateTime:                  | Mon Jul 22 16:56:38 EDT 2013 | NULL                 |
| LastAccessTime:              | UNKNOWN                      | NULL                 |
| Protect Mode:                | None                         | NULL                 |
| Retention:                   | 0                            | NULL                 |
| Table Type:                  | VIRTUAL_VIEW                 | NULL                 |
| Table Parameters:            | NULL                         | NULL                 |
|                              | transient_lastDdlTime        | 1374526598           |
|                              | NULL                         | NULL                 |
| # Storage Information        | NULL                         | NULL                 |
| SerDe Library:               | null                         | NULL                 |
| InputFormat:                 | null                         | NULL                 |
| OutputFormat:                | null                         | NULL                 |
| Compressed:                  | No                           | NULL                 |
| Num Buckets:                 | 0                            | NULL                 |
| Bucket Columns:              | []                           | NULL                 |
| Sort Columns:                | []                           | NULL                 |
|                              | NULL                         | NULL                 |
| # View Information           | NULL                         | NULL                 |
| View Original Text:          | SELECT x, upper(s) FROM t1   | NULL                 |
| View Expanded Text:          | SELECT x, upper(s) FROM t1   | NULL                 |
+------------------------------+------------------------------+----------------------+
Returned 28 row(s) in 0.03s
[localhost:21000] > create external table t2 (x int, y int, s string) stored as parquet location '/user/doc_demo/sample_data';
[localhost:21000] > describe formatted t2;
Query: describe formatted t2
Query finished, fetching results ...
+------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+------------+
| name                         | type                                               | comment    |
+------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+------------+
| # col_name                   | data_type                                          | comment    |
|                              | NULL                                               | NULL       |
| x                            | int                                                | None       |
| y                            | int                                                | None       |
| s                            | string                                             | None       |
|                              | NULL                                               | NULL       |
| # Detailed Table Information | NULL                                               | NULL       |
| Database:                    | describe_formatted                                 | NULL       |
| Owner:                       | doc_demo                                           | NULL       |
| CreateTime:                  | Mon Jul 22 17:01:47 EDT 2013                       | NULL       |
| LastAccessTime:              | UNKNOWN                                            | NULL       |
| Protect Mode:                | None                                               | NULL       |
| Retention:                   | 0                                                  | NULL       |
| Location:                    | hdfs://127.0.0.1:8020/user/doc_demo/sample_data    | NULL       |
| Table Type:                  | EXTERNAL_TABLE                                     | NULL       |
| Table Parameters:            | NULL                                               | NULL       |
|                              | EXTERNAL                                           | TRUE       |
|                              | transient_lastDdlTime                              | 1374526907 |
|                              | NULL                                               | NULL       |
| # Storage Information        | NULL                                               | NULL       |
| SerDe Library:               | org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.lazy.LazySimpleSerDe | NULL       |
| InputFormat:                 | org.apache.impala.hive.serde.ParquetInputFormat    | NULL       |
| OutputFormat:                | org.apache.impala.hive.serde.ParquetOutputFormat   | NULL       |
| Compressed:                  | No                                                 | NULL       |
| Num Buckets:                 | 0                                                  | NULL       |
| Bucket Columns:              | []                                                 | NULL       |
| Sort Columns:                | []                                                 | NULL       |
+------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+------------+
Returned 27 row(s) in 0.17s

Cancellation: Cannot be cancelled.

HDFS permissions:

The user ID that the impalad daemon runs under, typically the impala user, must have read and execute permissions for all directories that are part of the table. (A table could span multiple different HDFS directories if it is partitioned. The directories could be widely scattered because a partition can reside in an arbitrary HDFS directory based on its LOCATION attribute.)

Kudu considerations:

The information displayed for Kudu tables includes the additional attributes that are only applicable for Kudu tables:

  • Whether or not the column is part of the primary key. Every Kudu table has a true value here for at least one column. There could be multiple true values, for tables with composite primary keys.
  • Whether or not the column is nullable. Specified by the NULL or NOT NULL attributes on the CREATE TABLE statement. Columns that are part of the primary key are automatically non-nullable.
  • The default value, if any, for the column. Specified by the DEFAULT attribute on the CREATE TABLE statement. If the default value is NULL, that is not indicated in this column. It is implied by nullable being true and no other default value specified.
  • The encoding used for values in the column. Specified by the ENCODING attribute on the CREATE TABLE statement.
  • The compression used for values in the column. Specified by the COMPRESSION attribute on the CREATE TABLE statement.
  • The block size (in bytes) used for the underlying Kudu storage layer for the column. Specified by the BLOCK_SIZE attribute on the CREATE TABLE statement.

The following example shows DESCRIBE output for a simple Kudu table, with a single-column primary key and all column attributes left with their default values:


describe million_rows;
+------+--------+---------+-------------+----------+---------------+---------------+---------------------+------------+
| name | type   | comment | primary_key | nullable | default_value | encoding      | compression         | block_size |
+------+--------+---------+-------------+----------+---------------+---------------+---------------------+------------+
| id   | string |         | true        | false    |               | AUTO_ENCODING | DEFAULT_COMPRESSION | 0          |
| s    | string |         | false       | false    |               | AUTO_ENCODING | DEFAULT_COMPRESSION | 0          |
+------+--------+---------+-------------+----------+---------------+---------------+---------------------+------------+

The following example shows DESCRIBE output for a Kudu table with a two-column primary key, and Kudu-specific attributes applied to some columns:


create table kudu_describe_example
(
  c1 int, c2 int,
  c3 string, c4 string not null, c5 string default 'n/a', c6 string default '',
  c7 bigint not null, c8 bigint null default null, c9 bigint default -1 encoding bit_shuffle,
  primary key(c1,c2)
)
partition by hash (c1, c2) partitions 10 stored as kudu;

describe kudu_describe_example;
+------+--------+---------+-------------+----------+---------------+---------------+---------------------+------------+
| name | type   | comment | primary_key | nullable | default_value | encoding      | compression         | block_size |
+------+--------+---------+-------------+----------+---------------+---------------+---------------------+------------+
| c1   | int    |         | true        | false    |               | AUTO_ENCODING | DEFAULT_COMPRESSION | 0          |
| c2   | int    |         | true        | false    |               | AUTO_ENCODING | DEFAULT_COMPRESSION | 0          |
| c3   | string |         | false       | true     |               | AUTO_ENCODING | DEFAULT_COMPRESSION | 0          |
| c4   | string |         | false       | false    |               | AUTO_ENCODING | DEFAULT_COMPRESSION | 0          |
| c5   | string |         | false       | true     | n/a           | AUTO_ENCODING | DEFAULT_COMPRESSION | 0          |
| c6   | string |         | false       | true     |               | AUTO_ENCODING | DEFAULT_COMPRESSION | 0          |
| c7   | bigint |         | false       | false    |               | AUTO_ENCODING | DEFAULT_COMPRESSION | 0          |
| c8   | bigint |         | false       | true     |               | AUTO_ENCODING | DEFAULT_COMPRESSION | 0          |
| c9   | bigint |         | false       | true     | -1            | BIT_SHUFFLE   | DEFAULT_COMPRESSION | 0          |
+------+--------+---------+-------------+----------+---------------+---------------+---------------------+------------+

Related information:

Overview of Impala Tables, CREATE TABLE Statement, SHOW TABLES Statement, SHOW CREATE TABLE Statement